All cells are specialised in order to carry out their functions effectively.
Surface area to volume ratio –> not surface area!
Red Blood Cells
Biconcave disc (both sides are concave)
Contains haemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein)
Function: Transport oxygen
Does not have a nucleus and organelles
– Maximises the amount of haemoglobin it can accommodate
– Short lifespan (unable to undergo cell division)
Shaped like a biconcave disc to increase the surface area to volume ratio
– allows more oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse into the haemoglobin
∴ Allow the RBC to transport oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from all parts of the body effectively
Root hair cell
Large surface area to volume ratio
Large vacuole –> filled with cell sap
Thin cellulose cell wall
Function: absorb water and mineral salts
(Water and nutrients = WN)
Long protrusion increases the surface area to volume ratio of the cell
– more WN can be absorbed through osmosis.
Narrow protrusion also allows the root hair to absorb WN from hard-to-reach areas.
The large central vacuole and thin cell wall help to draw more water from the soil into the cell through osmosis.
∴ Increase the efficiency and amount of WN absorbed by the cell.
composed of a thickened wall and lignin
Function: transport water
Hollow, walls thickened and waterproofed with lignin
– Strengthens the vessels
– Allows water to pass through freely
– Strong walls give rigidity and support to the plant’s stems
The pits in the walls allow water to diffuse out of the xylem and into surrounding cells.
∴ Allow for quick and efficient transportation of water to all parts of plant
Finger-like extensions (microvilli) at the top of the cell
Function: Allows absorption to take place
Microvilli increase the surface area to volume ratio of the cell
∴ Maximises the amount of digested food absorbed by the small intestine
Structure and Function of red blood cells
Root hair – large central vacuole’s function
Transport in plants – functions of xylem and phloem
Function of xylem – look at comments section as well
What are ciliated cells?
Functions of ciliated cells – why plants don’t have them