Binary fission – (Asexual) the cell replicates its DNA and splits into 2 genetically identical daughter cells. Takes place in prokaryotes and certain organelles (e.g. mitochondria)
Budding – (Asexual) a new organism develops from an outgrowth of the parent organism and breaks away when mature. It is genetically identical to the parent organism.
Mitosis – (Asexual) Eukaryotes separating its chromosomes into 2 separate nuclei, and dividing into 2 genetically identical cells with almost the same number of organelles. Similar to binary fission.
Meiosis – (Sexual) The 2 sets of chromosomes in the eukaryote form different combinations of genes; and the eukaryote separates into 4 genetically unique cells.
Turgidity – The state of being turgid or swollen, especially due to high fluid content. Turgidity is essential in plant cells to keep them firm.